is smelted in the district, the rest going to the Euhr or the Lower Rhine. In 1899 there were 2,120,000 tons of ore raised, which was one-eighth of the total for Germany. The calcined ore, according to Brugmann,* runs from 47 to 48 per cent, in iron, 8 to 10 per cent, in manganese and 9 to 12 per cent, in residue. The distance to the Euhr is 90 miles and the freight 70 cents per ton. The cost delivered is $4.40, the low phosphorus and high manganese making the ore desirable.
There are 32 blast furnaces in the district, four of them operated by steel works. These have a daily capacity ranging from 70 to 110 tons, but the others are smaller, the average rated capacity being only 60 tons. The pig-iron production in 1899 was 657,000 tons, which is 30 tons per day for each furnace, but many of the old furnaces are making spiegeleisen, a considerable proportion of the output running 20 per cent, in manganese. Much pig is used for puddling, there being over one hundred furnaces in the district, or 10 per cent, of the total for Germany. There are four steel works in the district, concerning one of which the German records give no information beyond a question mark. The other three make only basic open-hearth steel, having 12 furnaces of an average capacity, of 13 tons. The output of steel in 1902 was 154,000 tons.
The district of Osnabruck lies at the junction of western Hannover and northern "Westphalia; being only 50 miles from the Ruhr it might be included in that district, but it possesses its own coal and ore beds and thus stands by itself. In 1899 it raised 550,000 tons of bituminous coal and 128,000 tons of ore. The ore comes from the Hiiggel and though low in phosphorus is very friable. Brugmann gives its content as from 15 to'25 per cent, of iron, with much moisture. The iron industry is centered in the Georgs-Marien-Bergwerks, at Osnabruck. There are four blast furnaces, and in 1899 the production of pig-iron was 115,000 tons, or about 80 tons per day for each. There are two acid converters of seven tons, and three basic open-hearth furnaces of twenty tons each.
The iron industry of Bavaria consists of the Eisen. Ges. Maxi-milianshiitte, at Eosenberg in Oberpfalz. It has two blast furnaces,
' 'Journal L & 8, L, Vol. II, 1902.